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  • 名 称:
    beta-Tubulin 抗体 [AFfirm039]
  • 货 号:
  • RRID:
  • 来 源:
  • 应 用:
  • 反 应:
    Human, Mouse, Rat, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog, Monkey, Hamster, Chicken
  • 蛋白号:
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TUBB3, CDCBM, Beta III Tubulin, Class III beta-tubulin, TUBB4, Tubulin, beta 3, Tubulin beta-III, Tubulin beta-3 chain, Tubulin beta-4 chain, Tubulin, beta 3 class III, CFEOM3A


WB: 1:10000-1:500000, IHC: 1:200, IF/ICC: 1:200
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.


Human, Mouse, Rat, Sheep, Rabbit, Dog, Monkey, Hamster, Chicken










beta-Tubulin Mouse Monoclonal antibody detects endogenous levels of total beta-Tubulin protein.


引用格式: Affinity Biosciences Cat# T0023, RRID:AB_2813772.






Mouse IgG1 in phosphate buffered saline (without Mg2+ and Ca2+), pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl.



Full-length beta-tubulin protein of human.


>>Visit The Human Protein Atlas

Gene ID:

Gene Name:


Molecular Weight:

Observed Mol.Wt.: 55kD.
Predicted Mol.Wt.: 50kDa(Calculated)..

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton.

Tissue Specificity:

P07437 TBB5_HUMAN:
Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain.


Microtubules are constituent parts of the mitotic apparatus, cilia, flagella, and elements of the cytoskeleton. They consist principally of 2 soluble proteins, alpha- and beta-tubulin, each of about 55,000 kDa. Antibodies against beta Tubulin are useful as loading controls for Western Blotting. However it should be noted that levels of beta-Tubulin may not be stable in certain cells. For example, expression of beta-Tubulin in adipose tissue is very low and therefore beta-Tubulin should not be used as loading control for these tissues.




Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Post-translational Modifications:

Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold.

Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear (Probable).

Phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during the cell cycle, from metaphase to telophase, but not in interphase. This phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules.

Subcellular Location:


Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location

Tissue Specificity:

Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain.

Subunit Structure:

Heterodimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with PIFO. Interacts with DIAPH1. Interacts with MX1 (By similarity). May interact with RNABP10 (By similarity). Interacts with CFAP157 (By similarity).


The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.

Belongs to the tubulin family.


Research Fields:

· Cellular Processes > Transport and catabolism > Phagosome.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Gap junction.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

Reference Citations:

1). Han Z;Wang X;Xu Z;Cao Y;Gong R;Yu Y;Yu Y;Guo X;Liu S;Yu M;Ma W;Zhao Y;Xu J;Li X;Li S;Xu Y;Song R;Xu B;Yang F;Bamba D;Sukhareva N;Lei H;Gao M;Zhang W;Zagidullin N;Zhang Y;Yang B;Pan Z;Cai B; et al. ALKBH5 regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart regeneration by demethylating the mRNA of YTHDF1. Theranostics 2021 Jan 1;11(6):3000-3016. (PubMed: 33456585) [IF=8.579]

2). Zheng JM et al. MagT1 regulated the odontogenic differentiation of BMMSCs induced byTGC-CM via ERK signaling pathway. Stem Cell Res Ther 2019 Jan 31;10(1):48 (PubMed: 30704530) [IF=5.116]

3). Xie Q et al. Treadmill exercise ameliorates focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurological deficit by promoting dendritic modification and synaptic plasticity via upregulating caveolin-1/VEGF signaling pathways. Exp Neurol 2018 Dec 12 (PubMed: 30552877) [IF=4.691]

4). Li X;Liu R;Cui Y;Liang J;Bi Z;Li S;Miao Y;Zhang L;Li X;Zhou H;Yang C; et al. Protective effect of remdesivir against pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Front Pharmacol 2021 Aug 26;12:692346. (PubMed: 34512328) [IF=4.225]

5). Lu W et al. ApoE deficiency promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice via impeding AMPK/mTOR mediated autophagy. Life Sci 2020 Apr 15;252:117601 (PubMed: 32304762) [IF=3.647]

6). Ma X et al. Covalent CDK7 Inhibitor THZ1 Inhibits Myogenic Differentiation. J Cancer 2018 Aug 6;9(17):3149-3155 (PubMed: 30210638) [IF=3.565]

7). Deng H et al. Protective effect of Ac-SDKP on alveolar epithelial cells through inhibition of EMT via TGF-β1/ROCK1 pathway in silicosis in rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2016 Mar 1;294:1-10 (PubMed: 26785300) [IF=3.347]

Application: WB    Species:rat;    Sample:rat

8). Luo Z;Lin J;Sun Y;Wang C;Chen J; et al. Bone Marrow Stromal Cell-Derived Exosomes promote muscle healing following contusion through macrophage polarization. Stem Cells Dev 2020 Dec 15. (PubMed: 33323007) [IF=3.082]

9). Wang Y;Liu Y;Liu J;Kang R;Tang D; et al. NEDD4L-mediated LTF protein degradation limits ferroptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 Aug 15;S0006-291X(20)31419-4. (PubMed: 32811647)

10). Xiao J;Chen X;Lu X;Xie M;He B;He S;You S;Chen Q; et al. Progesterone/Org inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cell growth via membrane progesterone receptor alpha. Thorac Cancer 2020 Jun 11. (PubMed: 32529777)

11). Zhang Y et al. Neferine in the Lotus Plumule Potentiates the Antitumor Effect of Imatinib in Primary Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells In Vitro. J Food Sci 2019 Mar 13 (PubMed: 30866043)

12). Xia Q;Ling X;Wang Z;Shen T;Chen M;Mao D;Ma X;Ning J;Zhang H;Chen D;Gu Q;Shen H;Yan J; et al. Flavonoids Sophoranone Promotes Differentiation of C2C12 and Extraocular Muscle Satellite Cells. Ophthalmic Res 2020 Apr 28. (PubMed: 32344402)

13). Zhang W et al. MicroRNA-124 expression in the brains of rats during early cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury is associated with cell apoptosis involving STAT3. Exp Ther Med 2019 Apr;17(4):2870-2876 (PubMed: 30906474)

14). Zhang W et al. MicroRNA-124 expression in the brains of rats during early cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury is associated with cell apoptosis involving STAT3. Exp Ther Med 2019 Apr;17(4):2870-2876 (PubMed: 30906474)

15). Sun H;Li JJ;Feng ZR;Liu HY;Meng AG; et al. MicroRNA‑124 regulates cell pyroptosis during cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion injury by regulating STAT3. Exp Ther Med 2020 Dec;20(6):227. (PubMed: 33193841)

16). Zhou Y;Cheng Y;Li Y;Ma J;Wu Z;Chen Y;Mei J;Chen M; et al. Soluble β-amyloid impaired the GABA inhibition by mediating KCC2 in early APP/PS1 mice. Biosci Trends 2021 Sep 16. (PubMed: 34526443)

17). Fan L;Chen L;Liang Z;Bao H;Wang D;Dong Y;Zheng S;Xiao C;Du J;Li H; et al. A Polysaccharide Extract from Maitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Grifola frondosa (Agaricomycetes) Ameliorates Learning and Memory Function in Aluminum Chloride-Induced Amnesia in Mice. Int J Med Mushrooms 2019;21(11):1065-1074. (PubMed: 32450016)

18). Yingying X et al. The Effect of SIN1 and Microtubules on Insulin Induced PKC ζ Activation. Med Sci Monit 2017 Jul 28;23:3666-3672 (PubMed: 28751630)

Application: WB    Species:human;    Sample:Not available

Figure 4. Microtubule involved in PKC z activation. (A) In resting condition, co-immunoprecipitation of PKC z in Scr and siSIN1 cells lysis buffer, and the expression of b-tubulin was measured by western blotting. Nonimmune IgG was used as a control. (B) SIN1 and b-tubulin co-IP with PKC z antibody at different intervals stimulated by 100 nmol/L insulin. (C) After being treated with 10 nM PTX and 10 μM NDZ for four hours, membrane translocation of PKC z induced by insulin was tested. (D) After being treated by 10 nM PTX and 10 μM NDZ, phosphorylation of PKC z and downstream coflin induced by insulin was measured. (E) The relationship of microtubules with PKC z was tested by confocal microscopy before and after 100 nmol/L insulin stimulation.

19). et al. Cdk5-Mediated Drp1 Phosphorylation Drives Mitochondrial Defects and Neuronal Apoptosis in Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy.

20). et al. Ellagic Acid Attenuates BLM-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis via Inhibiting Wnt Signaling Pathway.

21). et al. CD90 affects the biological behavior and energy metabolism level of gastric cancer cells by targeting the PI3K/AKT/HIF‑1α signaling pathway.

22). et al. Zanubrutinib Attenuated Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis by Inhibiting the TGF-β1 Signaling Pathway.

23). et al. Regorafenib-Attenuated, Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis by Inhibiting the TGF-β1 Signaling Pathway.

24). et al. Free CA125 promotes ovarian cancer cell migration and tumor metastasis by binding Mesothelin to reduce DKK1 expression and activate the SGK3/FOXO3 pathway.

25). et al. The inverse relationship between fibronectin and neuroligins in the embryonic rat colon.

26). Ding Q;Luo L;Yu L;Huang SL;Wang XQ;Zhang B; et al. The critical role of ROS in Ermanin-induced melanogenesis. Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Sep 21;S0891-5849(21)00737-1. (PubMed: 34560247)

27). Wang F;Zhang QB;Zhou Y;Liu AY;Huang PP;Liu Y; et al. Effect of ultrashort wave treatment on joint dysfunction and muscle atrophy in a rabbit model of extending knee joint contracture: Enhanced expression of myogenic differentiation. Knee 2020 Jun;27(3):795-802. (PubMed: 32201041)

28). et al. M2 Macrophages Promote PDGFRβ+ Pericytes Migration After Spinal Cord Injury in Mice via PDGFB/PDGFRβ Pathway.

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Catalog Number :

(Blocking peptide available as T0023-BP)

Price/Size :

Tips: For phospho antibody, we provide phospho peptide(0.5mg) and non-phospho peptide(0.5mg).

Function :

Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.

Format and storage :

Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.The purity is >90%,tested by HPLC and MS.Storage Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.

Precautions :

This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

P07437 as Substrate
Site PTM Type Enzyme
R2 Methylation
C12 S-Nitrosylation
K19 Acetylation
K19 Methylation
K19 Ubiquitination
S25 Phosphorylation
T33 Phosphorylation
T35 Phosphorylation
Y36 Phosphorylation
S40 Phosphorylation
R46 Methylation
S48 Phosphorylation
Y50 Phosphorylation
Y51 Phosphorylation
T55 Phosphorylation
K58 Acetylation
K58 Methylation
K58 Sumoylation
K58 Ubiquitination
Y59 Phosphorylation
T72 Phosphorylation
S75 Phosphorylation
S78 Phosphorylation
S95 Phosphorylation
K103 Acetylation
K103 Sumoylation
K103 Ubiquitination
Y106 Phosphorylation
T107 Phosphorylation
S115 Phosphorylation
K122 Ubiquitination
S126 Phosphorylation
T136 Phosphorylation
S138 Phosphorylation
T143 Phosphorylation
S145 Phosphorylation
T149 Phosphorylation
S153 Phosphorylation
K154 Ubiquitination
Y159 Phosphorylation
R162 Methylation
T166 Phosphorylation
S168 Phosphorylation
S172 Phosphorylation
K174 Ubiquitination
Y183 Phosphorylation
T196 Phosphorylation
T199 Phosphorylation
Y200 Phosphorylation
Y208 Phosphorylation
K216 Ubiquitination
T218 Phosphorylation
T219 Phosphorylation
T221 Phosphorylation
Y222 Phosphorylation
S234 Phosphorylation
C239 S-Nitrosylation
K252 Sumoylation
K252 Ubiquitination
T274 Phosphorylation
S275 Phosphorylation Q5TCY1 (TTBK1)
R276 Methylation
S278 Phosphorylation
Y281 Phosphorylation
T285 Phosphorylation
T290 Phosphorylation
K297 Ubiquitination
C303 S-Nitrosylation
Y310 Phosphorylation
T312 Phosphorylation
R318 Methylation
S322 Phosphorylation
K324 Acetylation
K324 Sumoylation
K324 Ubiquitination
K336 Acetylation
K336 Ubiquitination
S338 Phosphorylation
S339 Phosphorylation
Y340 Phosphorylation
K350 Sumoylation
K350 Ubiquitination
T351 Phosphorylation
K362 Ubiquitination
T366 Phosphorylation
S371 Phosphorylation
K379 Acetylation
K379 Ubiquitination
S382 Phosphorylation
T386 Phosphorylation
K392 Ubiquitination
T399 Phosphorylation
Y422 Phosphorylation
Y425 Phosphorylation
T429 Phosphorylation
IMPORTANT: For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted antibody in 5% w/v milk, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween®20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.

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