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  • 名 称:
    Tubulin beta 抗体
  • 货 号:
    AF7011
  • RRID:
    AB_2827688
  • 来 源:
    Rabbit
  • 应 用:
    WB,IHC,IF/ICC,ELISA(peptide)
  • 反 应:
    Human, Mouse, Rat
  • 蛋白号:
  • 分子量:
    55kD;
    50kDa(Calculated).
  • 浓 度:
    1mg/ml
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产品信息

别名:Expand▼

TUBB3, CDCBM, Beta III Tubulin, Class III beta-tubulin, TUBB4, Tubulin, beta 3, Tubulin beta-III, Tubulin beta-3 chain, Tubulin beta-4 chain, Tubulin, beta 3 class III, CFEOM3A

应用:

WB 1:1000-1:5000, IHC 1:50-1:200, IF/ICC 1:100-1:500, ELISA(peptide) 1:20000-1:40000
*The optimal dilutions should be determined by the end user.

反应性:

Human, Mouse, Rat

来源:

Rabbit

克隆性:

Polyclonal

纯化:

The antiserum was purified by peptide affinity chromatography using SulfoLink™ Coupling Resin (Thermo Fisher Scientific).

特异性:

Tubulin beta Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Tubulin beta.

RRID:

AB_2827688
引用格式: Affinity Biosciences Cat# AF7011, RRID:AB_2827688.

形式:

Liquid

浓度:

1mg/ml

保存条件:

Rabbit IgG in phosphate buffered saline , pH 7.4, 150mM NaCl, 0.02% sodium azide and 50% glycerol.Store at -20 °C.Stable for 12 months from date of receipt.

免疫原

Immunogen:

A synthesized peptide derived from human Tubulin beta.

Uniprot:



>>Visit The Human Protein Atlas

Gene ID:

Gene Name:

TUBB

Molecular Weight:

Observed Mol.Wt.: 55kD.
Predicted Mol.Wt.: 50kDa(Calculated)..

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm > cytoskeleton.

Tissue Specificity:

P07437 TBB5_HUMAN:
Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain.

Description:

TUBB3 Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha-chain. TUBB3 plays a critical role in proper axon guidance and mantainance.

Sequence:
MREIVHIQAGQCGNQIGAKFWEVISDEHGIDPTGTYHGDSDLQLDRISVYYNEATGGKYVPRAILVDLEPGTMDSVRSGPFGQIFRPDNFVFGQSGAGNNWAKGHYTEGAELVDSVLDVVRKEAESCDCLQGFQLTHSLGGGTGSGMGTLLISKIREEYPDRIMNTFSVVPSPKVSDTVVEPYNATLSVHQLVENTDETYCIDNEALYDICFRTLKLTTPTYGDLNHLVSATMSGVTTCLRFPGQLNADLRKLAVNMVPFPRLHFFMPGFAPLTSRGSQQYRALTVPELTQQVFDAKNMMAACDPRHGRYLTVAAVFRGRMSMKEVDEQMLNVQNKNSSYFVEWIPNNVKTAVCDIPPRGLKMAVTFIGNSTAIQELFKRISEQFTAMFRRKAFLHWYTGEGMDEMEFTEAESNMNDLVSEYQQYQDATAEEEEDFGEEAEEEA

研究背景

Function:

Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.

Post-translational Modifications:

Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are polyglutamylated, resulting in polyglutamate chains on the gamma-carboxyl group. Polyglutamylation plays a key role in microtubule severing by spastin (SPAST). SPAST preferentially recognizes and acts on microtubules decorated with short polyglutamate tails: severing activity by SPAST increases as the number of glutamates per tubulin rises from one to eight, but decreases beyond this glutamylation threshold.

Some glutamate residues at the C-terminus are monoglycylated but not polyglycylated due to the absence of functional TTLL10 in human. Monoglycylation is mainly limited to tubulin incorporated into axonemes (cilia and flagella). Both polyglutamylation and monoglycylation can coexist on the same protein on adjacent residues, and lowering glycylation levels increases polyglutamylation, and reciprocally. The precise function of monoglycylation is still unclear (Probable).

Phosphorylated on Ser-172 by CDK1 during the cell cycle, from metaphase to telophase, but not in interphase. This phosphorylation inhibits tubulin incorporation into microtubules.

Subcellular Location:

Cytoplasm>Cytoskeleton.

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionSubcellular location

Tissue Specificity:

Ubiquitously expressed with highest levels in spleen, thymus and immature brain.

Subunit Structure:

Heterodimer of alpha and beta chains. A typical microtubule is a hollow water-filled tube with an outer diameter of 25 nm and an inner diameter of 15 nM. Alpha-beta heterodimers associate head-to-tail to form protofilaments running lengthwise along the microtubule wall with the beta-tubulin subunit facing the microtubule plus end conferring a structural polarity. Microtubules usually have 13 protofilaments but different protofilament numbers can be found in some organisms and specialized cells. Interacts with PIFO. Interacts with DIAPH1. Interacts with MX1 (By similarity). May interact with RNABP10 (By similarity). Interacts with CFAP157 (By similarity).

Similarity:

The highly acidic C-terminal region may bind cations such as calcium.

Belongs to the tubulin family.

研究领域

Research Fields:

· Cellular Processes > Transport and catabolism > Phagosome.(View pathway)
· Cellular Processes > Cellular community - eukaryotes > Gap junction.(View pathway)
· Human Diseases > Infectious diseases: Bacterial > Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection.

Reference Citations:

1). Cao L et al. The Nuclear Matrix Protein SAFA Surveils Viral RNA and Facilitates Immunity by Activating Antiviral Enhancers and Super-enhancers. Cell Host Microbe 2019 Sep 11;26(3):369-384 (PubMed: 31513772) [IF=15.923]

2). Li S;Kuang M;Chen L;Li Y;Liu S;Du H;Cao L;You F; et al. The mitochondrial protein ERAL1 suppresses RNA virus infection by facilitating RIG-I-like receptor signaling. Cell Rep 2021 Jan 19;34(3):108631. (PubMed: 33472079) [IF=8.109]

3). Li M;Hua Q;Shao Y;Zeng H;Liu Y;Diao Q;Zhang H;Qiu M;Zhu J;Li X;Ling Y;Zhang R;Jiang Y; et al. Circular RNA circBbs9 promotes PM2. 5-induced lung inflammation in mice via NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Environ Int 2020 Jul 21;143:105976. (PubMed: 32707273) [IF=7.577]

4). He XF;Xu JH;Li G;Li MY;Li LL;Pei Z;Zhang LY;Hu XQ; et al. NLRP3-dependent microglial training impaired the clearance of amyloid-beta and aggravated the cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Cell Death Dis 2020 Oct 13;11(10):849. (PubMed: 33051464) [IF=6.304]

5). Sun R et al. Rat sinus mucosa- and periosteum-derived exosomes accelerate osteogenesis. J Cell Physiol 2019 May 9 (PubMed: 31074002) [IF=5.546]

6). Zheng JM et al. MagT1 regulated the odontogenic differentiation of BMMSCs induced byTGC-CM via ERK signaling pathway. Stem Cell Res Ther 2019 Jan 31;10(1):48 (PubMed: 30704530) [IF=5.116]

7). Kong Y et al. Magnesium-enriched microenvironment promotes odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells by activating ERK/BMP2/Smads signaling. Stem Cell Res Ther 2019 Dec 10;10(1):378 (PubMed: 31823825) [IF=5.116]

8). Xu C;Zhang M;Zu L;Zhang P;Sun L;Liu X;Fang M; et al. Repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor regulates glutamate receptors and immediate early genes to affect synaptic plasticity. Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jun 9;13(11):15569-15579. (PubMed: 34106879) [IF=4.831]

9). Wang P et al. The GRA15 protein from Toxoplasma gondii enhances host defense responses by activating the interferon stimulator STING. J Biol Chem 2019 Aug 15 (PubMed: 31416833) [IF=4.238]

10). Meng F;Zhang L;Zhang M;Ye K;Guo W;Liu Y;Yang W;Zhai Z;Wang H;Xiao J;Dai H; et al. Down-regulation of BCL2L13 renders poor prognosis in clear cell and papillary renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Cell Int 2021 Jun 30;21(1):332. (PubMed: 34193180) [IF=4.175]

11). Ge Y et al. CD38 affects the biological behavior and energy metabolism of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Int J Oncol 2019 Feb;54(2):585-599 (PubMed: 30535454) [IF=3.899]

12). Hua Q et al. Circular RNA 0039411 is involved in neodymium oxide-induced inflammation and anti-proliferation in a human bronchial epithelial cell line via sponging miR-93-5p. Toxicol Sci 2019 Mar 23 (PubMed: 30903189) [IF=3.703]

13). Hua Q;Liu Y;Li M;Chen Y;Diao Q;Zeng H;Jiang Y; et al. Tobacco-related exposure upregulates circ_0035266 to exacerbate inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 2020 Oct 27;kfaa163. (PubMed: 33107911) [IF=3.703]

14). Chen J;Yang Y;Lv Z;Shu A;Du Q;Wang W;Chen Y;Xu H; et al. Study on the inhibitive effect of Catalpol on diabetic nephropathy. Life Sci 2020 Sep 15;257:118120. (PubMed: 32693244) [IF=3.647]

15). Qiu P et al. Dihydromyricetin modulates p62 and autophagy crosstalk with the Keap-1/Nrf2 pathway to alleviate ethanol-induced hepatic injury. Toxicol Lett 2017 May 15;274:31-41 (PubMed: 28419832) [IF=3.569]

Application: WB    Species:Not available;    Sample:Not available


16). Li F;Chen Y;Li Y;Huang M;Zhao W; et al. Geniposide alleviates diabetic nephropathy of mice through AMPK/SIRT1/NF-κB pathway. Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Aug 3;173449. (PubMed: 32758570) [IF=3.263]

17). Chen C et al. Nkd2 promotes the differentiation of dental follicle stem/progenitor cells into osteoblasts. Int J Mol Med 2018 Aug 14 (PubMed: 30106129) [IF=3.098]

18). Cheng Y et al. Strontium promotes osteogenic differentiation by activating autophagy via the the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in MC3T3‑E1 cells. Int J Mol Med 2019 Aug;44(2):652-660 (PubMed: 31173178) [IF=3.098]

19). Chen C et al. Nkd2 promotes the differentiation of dental follicle stem/progenitor cells into osteoblasts. Int J Mol Med 2018 Aug 14 (PubMed: 30106129) [IF=3.098]

20). Cheng Y et al. Strontium promotes osteogenic differentiation by activating autophagy via the the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in MC3T3‑E1 cells. Int J Mol Med 2019 Aug;44(2):652-660 (PubMed: 31173178) [IF=3.098]

21). Wang X;Li Y;Fan GF;Zhang TY;Sun B;Fan PS; et al. Effect of verapamil in the reversal of doxorubicin chemotherapy resistance in advanced gastric cancer. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2020 Jul;24(14):7753-7763. (PubMed: 32744702) [IF=3.024]

22). Wu M;Sun X;Wang T;Zhang M;Li P; et al. TRPS1 knockdown inhibits angiogenic vascular mimicry in human triple negative breast cancer cells. Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 3. (PubMed: 34216368)

23). Xia Q;Ling X;Wang Z;Shen T;Chen M;Mao D;Ma X;Ning J;Zhang H;Chen D;Gu Q;Shen H;Yan J; et al. Flavonoids Sophoranone Promotes Differentiation of C2C12 and Extraocular Muscle Satellite Cells. Ophthalmic Res 2021;64(2):337-344. (PubMed: 32344402)

24). Lin RJ et al. Clinicopathological and prognostic value of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) in primary osteosarcoma. J Orthop Sci 2020 May 10 (PubMed: 32402505)

25). Wang SL;Weng DF;Wei HX;Huang Z;Lin RQ;Shi K;Lin JH; et al. Prognostic role of the recepteur d'origine nantais (RON) expression in primary high-grade osteosarcoma. J Orthop Sci 2020 Sep 21;S0949-2658(20)30263-3. (PubMed: 32972820)

26). Wang R;Huang ZT;Ren WK;Zhang J;Zhang Y;Tan B;Huang P;Cao HY; et al. Isolation and Culture of Primary Neurons and Glia from Adult Rat Urinary Bladder. J Vis Exp 2020 May 23;(159). (PubMed: 32510511)

27). Li ZH et al. miR-29a regulated ER-positive breast cancer cell growth and invasion and is involved in the insulin signaling pathway. Oncotarget 2017 May 16;8(20):32566-32575 (PubMed: 28427228)

28). Wang C et al. Glutamine Enhances the Hypoglycemic Effect of Insulin in L6 Cells via Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase (PI3K)/Protein Kinase B (AKT)/Glucose Transporter 4 (GLUT4) Signaling Pathway. Med Sci Monit 2018 Mar 1;24:1241-1250 (PubMed: 29491345)

29). et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin in acute lung injury: In vivo and in vitro experimental model studies.

30). et al. Characterization of RNA-Binding Proteins in the Cell Nucleus and Cytoplasm.

31). et al. Curcumin promotes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells by inactivating AKT.

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Catalog Number :

AF7011-BP
(Blocking peptide available as AF7011-BP)

Price/Size :

¥2000/1mg.
Tips: For phospho antibody, we provide phospho peptide(0.5mg) and non-phospho peptide(0.5mg).

Function :

Blocking peptides are peptides that bind specifically to the target antibody and block antibody binding. These peptide usually contains the epitope recognized by the antibody. Antibodies bound to the blocking peptide no longer bind to the epitope on the target protein. This mechanism is useful when non-specific binding is an issue, for example, in Western blotting (immunoblot) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). By comparing the staining from the blocked antibody versus the antibody alone, one can see which staining is specific; Specific binding will be absent from the western blot or immunostaining performed with the neutralized antibody.

Format and storage :

Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.The purity is >90%,tested by HPLC and MS.Storage Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.

Precautions :

This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

Pig
50%
Horse
50%
Bovine
50%
Sheep
50%
Dog
50%
Xenopus
50%
Chicken
50%
Rabbit
50%
Zebrafish
0%
High similarity Medium similarity Low similarity No similarity
P07437 as Substrate
Site PTM Type Enzyme
R2 Methylation
C12 S-Nitrosylation
K19 Acetylation
K19 Methylation
K19 Ubiquitination
S25 Phosphorylation
T33 Phosphorylation
T35 Phosphorylation
Y36 Phosphorylation
S40 Phosphorylation
R46 Methylation
S48 Phosphorylation
Y50 Phosphorylation
Y51 Phosphorylation
T55 Phosphorylation
K58 Acetylation
K58 Methylation
K58 Sumoylation
K58 Ubiquitination
Y59 Phosphorylation
T72 Phosphorylation
S75 Phosphorylation
S78 Phosphorylation
S95 Phosphorylation
K103 Acetylation
K103 Sumoylation
K103 Ubiquitination
Y106 Phosphorylation
T107 Phosphorylation
S115 Phosphorylation
K122 Ubiquitination
S126 Phosphorylation
T136 Phosphorylation
S138 Phosphorylation
T143 Phosphorylation
S145 Phosphorylation
T149 Phosphorylation
S153 Phosphorylation
K154 Ubiquitination
Y159 Phosphorylation
R162 Methylation
T166 Phosphorylation
S168 Phosphorylation
S172 Phosphorylation
K174 Ubiquitination
Y183 Phosphorylation
T196 Phosphorylation
T199 Phosphorylation
Y200 Phosphorylation
Y208 Phosphorylation
K216 Ubiquitination
T218 Phosphorylation
T219 Phosphorylation
T221 Phosphorylation
Y222 Phosphorylation
S234 Phosphorylation
C239 S-Nitrosylation
K252 Sumoylation
K252 Ubiquitination
T274 Phosphorylation
S275 Phosphorylation Q5TCY1 (TTBK1)
R276 Methylation
S278 Phosphorylation
Y281 Phosphorylation
T285 Phosphorylation
T290 Phosphorylation
K297 Ubiquitination
C303 S-Nitrosylation
Y310 Phosphorylation
T312 Phosphorylation
R318 Methylation
S322 Phosphorylation
K324 Acetylation
K324 Sumoylation
K324 Ubiquitination
K336 Acetylation
K336 Ubiquitination
S338 Phosphorylation
S339 Phosphorylation
Y340 Phosphorylation
K350 Sumoylation
K350 Ubiquitination
T351 Phosphorylation
K362 Ubiquitination
T366 Phosphorylation
S371 Phosphorylation
K379 Acetylation
K379 Ubiquitination
S382 Phosphorylation
T386 Phosphorylation
K392 Ubiquitination
T399 Phosphorylation
Y422 Phosphorylation
Y425 Phosphorylation
T429 Phosphorylation
IMPORTANT: For western blots, incubate membrane with diluted antibody in 5% w/v milk, 1X TBS, 0.1% Tween®20 at 4°C with gentle shaking, overnight.

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